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Wrangel Island may have been the last place on earth where mammoths survived.
Most of Wrangel Island, and Herald Island, is a federally protected nature sanctuary administered by Russia's Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.
The flora includes 417 species of plants, double that of any other Arctic tundra territory of comparable size and more than any other Arctic island. For these reasons, the island was proclaimed the northernmost World Heritage Site in 2004. The region is blanketed by dry and cold Arctic air masses for most of the year.
Warmer and more humid air can reach the island from the south-east during summer.
The uppermost stratum consists of 0.7 to 1.5 km (0.43 to 0.93 mi) of Triassic clayish quartzose turbidites interbedded with black slate and siltstone.
A thin veneer of Cenozoic gravel, sand, clay and mud underlie the coastal plains of Wrangel Island.
The highest mountain on this island is Sovetskaya Mountain with an elevation of 1,096 m (3,596 ft) above mean sea level.
These strata are overlain by up to 2.15 km (1.34 mi) of Carboniferous to Permian limestone, often composed largely of crinoid plates, that is interbedded with slate, argillite and locally minor amounts of thick breccia, sandstone, and chert.
Late Neogene clay and gravel, which are only a few tens of meters thick, rest upon the eroded surface of the folded and faulted strata that comprise Wrangel Island.
Indurated Pliocene mud and gravel, which are only a few meters thick, overlie the Late Neogene sediments.
During the summer it is visited by many types of birds. Cetaceans such as bowhead whales, gray whales, and belugas can be seen close to shore.
Woolly mammoths survived there until 2500–2000 BC, the most recent survival of all known mammoth populations.